Bibliography: On balance, students in grades 6-12 in the United States benefit when their schools offer interscholastic sports.


Schools should not support sports

The Case Against High School Sports

Why the world is smarter than us

Cut school sports before academic programs

The value of high school sports

We can’t continue to value sports over education

Schools should support sports

7.6 million reasons to keep HS sports

High school sports aren’t killing academics

Does athletic success come at the expense of academic success?

The case for high school sports

High school sports bring value to students lives

The value of involvement in school sport

The effects of high school sports participation on labor market participation and academic outcomes

Academic value of non-academics

High school football’s value as a teacher of life lessons

High school sports true value

Why parents should push their kids to play team sports

School district misses value of middle school sports

The value of school sports

The benefits of team sports

Athletics do offer lessons that are missing in the classroom

Value of MS Sports (YouTube)

Non-School After School Programs Won’t Solve

Can after school programs help level the playing field?

Sports Coaches are Good Teachers

Athletic coaches and student achievement

Benefits of Youth Sports Participation

Athlete impressions of a character-based sports program for underserved youth

The secret to being a power woman: Play team sports

Successful women are also athletic

Effects of high school athletic participation on academics

The value of high school sports

Values of the Game (book)


Title IX and the Value of High School Athletics

Gender differences in sport involvement

General Co-Curricular

Broh, B.A. (2002). Linking extracurricular programming to academic achievement: Who benefits and why? Sociology of Education, 75, 69-96.

Social Capital

Coleman, J.S. (1987). Families and schools. Educational Researcher, 16, 32-38.

Coleman, J.S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94: S95-S120.

Coleman, J.S. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Frtich, W.S. (1999). An overlooked role of high school athletics: The formation of social capital through parent involvement. (abstract link). Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 19-23, 1999).

Lipscomb, S. (2006). Secondary school extracurricular involvement and academic achievement: A fixed effects approach. Economics of Education Review, 26(4), 463-472.

Marsh, H.W. (1992). Extracurricular activities: Beneficial extension of the traditional curriculum or subversion of academic goals? (gated, but you can join for free). Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 553-562.

McNeal, R.B. (1995). Extracurricular activities and high school dropouts. Sociology of Education, 68, 62-81.

Parcel, T.L. & Dufur, M.J. (2001). Capital at home and at school: Effects on student achievement. Social Forces, 79(3), 881-911.

Perks, T. (2007). Does sport foster social capital? The contribution of sport to a lifestyle of community participation (gated). Sociology of Sport Journal, 24, 378-401.

Co/Extra Curricular

The Value of co-curricular activities

Green, R. (2009). Cutting school sports is a bad idea. Hartford Courant. Retrieved

Guest, A. & Schneider, B. (2003). Adolescents’ extracurricular participation in context: The mediating effects of schools, communities, and identity. Sociology of Education, 76(2), 89-109. (gated)

Strauss, L. (2011). No high school sports lockout, please! The Huffington Post. Retrieved from


Coakley, J. (2011). Youth sports: What counts as positive youth development? Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 35(3), 1-19.

Gould, D., & Carson, S. (2008). Life skills development through sport: Current status and future directions. Sport & Exercise Psychology Reviews, 1(1), 58-78. doi: 10.1080/17509840701834573

Duffett, A., & Johnson, J. (2004). All work and no play? Listening to what kids and parents want from out-of-school time. NY: Wallace Foundation & The Public Agenda.

Gould, D., Flett, M. R., & Lauer, L. (2012). The relationship between psychosocial developmental and the sports climate experienced by underserved youth (gated). Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 13(1), 80-87

Holt, N. L., Tink, L. N., Mandigo, J. L., & Fox, K. R. (2008). Do youth learn life skills through their involvement in high school sport? (gated) A case study. Canadian Journal of Education, 31, 281-304.