The dominance of two major political parties in the U.S. presidential elections undermines democracy (bibliography)

The dominance of two major political parties in the U.S presidential elections undermines democracy.

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Since undermining the two party system could undermine the electoral college, I have included links to these files —

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The two party system .  This is a quick overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the two party system that is meant for a classroom lesson.

The two party system. This Wikipedia article explains the two party system and has a focus on the history of it in the United States.

Point/Counterpoint: Party autonomy and the two party electoral system.  A general review of the two party system, with arguments on both sides.

MORRIS FIORINA, DIVIDED GOVERNMENT 120 (2d ed. 1996) (concluding that in both a multi-party and two-party systems, the complexities of voting threaten to overwhelm voters).


The two party system is destroying America. This article argues the two party system is producing policy gridlock and skewing the discussion of issues by creating a left/right battle.

The primary system isn’t rigged but the two party system is. This article makes the argument that the two party system effectively excludes candidates who are not members of one of the parties, undermining Democratic choice.

It’s time for black people to break away from the two party system.  This article argues that neither Democrats nor Republicans support the interests of Blacks.

This campaign broke the US two party system.  This article argues a multi-party system is more likely to promote compromise and legislation.

The two party political system is failing in the United States. This article argues that the two party system produces extremism.

America’s two party political system has failed democracy.  This article argues the system is non-responsive to voters.

Duopoloy versus autonomy: How the two-party system harms the major parties

Is the two party system best for America?  This article challenges the claim that the two party system is an essential component of the Constitution/American political theory.

A Black Party? Timmons, Black Backlash and the engendered two-party paradigm. Two party system hurts minorities, particularly Blacks.

Richard L. Hasen, Entrenching the Duopoly: Why the Supreme Court Should Not Allow the States to Protect the Democrats and Republicans From Political Competition, 1997 SUP. CT. REV. 331, 344 (1998).

Theodore J. Lowi, President v. Congress: What the Two-Party Duopoly Has Done to the American Separation of Powers, 47 CASE W. RES. L. REV. 1219, 1225 (1997). Lowi argues that the two party system has resulted in an extreme Separation of Powers that threatens innovation and quality governance.

Kay Lawson, The Case for a Multiparty System, in MULTIPARTY POLITICS IN AMERICA 59, 62 (Paul S. Herrnson & John C. Green eds., 1997) (comparing bi-hegemonic political party structures of the United States and Great Britain).


America’s Two Party System: Friend or Foe?. This article is a comprehensive defense of the two party system.  It’s a must read for the Negative.

Why party Democrats need popular democracy and popular democrats need parties.  This is a general defense of political parties. This article is useful if the Affirmative argues that the alternative to the two party system is no parties at all.

In Defense of the Two-Party System, in MULTIPARTY POLITICS IN AMERICA 73-74 (Paul S. Herrnson & John C. Green eds., 1997).

Committee on Political Parties, American Political Science Association, Toward a More Responsible Two-Party System, AM. POL. SCI. REV., Sept. 1950, at 18 (dismissing the idea of alternatives to the two-party system because the minor parties “have failed to leave a lasting imprint upon both the two-party system and the basic processes of American government”).