Resolved: The United States should replace means-tested welfare programs with a universal basic income (bibliography)

Amisha’s Reading List
Amisha’s reading list consists of critical articles on the topic. If you do not read any other articles, read these!
UBI: Purpose, Pros and Cons (2019) This article pretty thorough reviews the basic pros and cons of a UBI as well as the different proposals
Why welfare doesn’t work and what should we do instead (2018). This article argues welfare doesn’t work and that its conditions create poverty. It argues it should be replace with a UBI.
Basic income is better than the welfare state (2019). This article discusses Yang”s proposal and Murray’s proposal for UBI. It favors Murray’s proposal.
The progressive case for replacing the welfare state with a UBI. This article discusses the severe limitations of the current welfare system.
9 arguments against a UBI debunked (2018). This article answers common objections to a UBI.
UB may sound attractive, but it would likely increase poverty (2019). This article argues that UBI will trigger cuts in means tested programs that will increase poverty by 10 million people.
Three arguments against a UBI (2019). This article argues that UBI just rebrands welfare but significantly increases the power of the state.
UBI would cost taxpayers 3.8 trillion (2019) . This article discusses a study that concludes UBI would cost $3.8 trillion per year. 
UBI: New Study Finds it Cannot Live Up to Its Promise (2019). This article argues that the existing UBI experiments do not do not prove a UBI will work.
Yang’s UBI is stealth welfare reform (2019). This article argues that the poor will not benefit from Yang’s proposal and will actually bear the brunt of the costs.

What is a UBI?

The Definitive Guide to UBI
What is basic income      

Can $500/month change a city (2019). This article doesn’t have a ton of evidence in it, but it discusses the UBI experiment in Stockton, CA. 
Do Milton Friedman and Andrew Yang really agree on a UBI? (2019). This article discusses the difference between the Yang and Murray proposals and argues that Yang’s cost savings math doesn’t add up.
The paradox of a UBI (2018). This article discusses the pros and cons of a UBI. It does point out that a UBI that would actually work  is probably to expensive.
Beyond the Wage-Based Society (Book)
General — Pro and Con
A Left defense of UBI (2019). This article argues that people will use UBI funds rationally but that it won’t solve the underlying structural causes of poverty.
On the economics of a UBI (2017). This article calls the proposal a UBI, but it really agues for a guaranteed minimum income — as income decreases the cash transfer would increase. There are some useful cards in here 
— robots will kill the tax base now
— a VAT is better than a robot tax
— We should support radical change.
Pro — Proposals
In Our Hands: A Plan to Replace the Welfare State (book) (2016) America’s population is wealthier than any in history. Every year, the American government redistributes more than a trillion dollars of that wealth to provide for retirement, health care, and the alleviation of poverty. We still have millions of people without comfortable retirements, without adequate health care, and living in poverty. Only a government can spend so much money so ineffectually. The solution is to give the money to the people This is the Plan, a radical new approach to social policy that defies any partisan label. Murray suggests eliminating all welfare transfer programs at the federal, state, and local levels and substituting an annual $10,000 cash grant to everyone age twenty-one or older. In Our Hands describes the financial feasibility of the Plan and its effects on retirement, health care, poverty, marriage and family, work, neighborhoods and civil society.
A budget neutral UBI proposal (2019)
 — Exploring a budget neutral UBI (2019)
Basic income is better than the welfare state (2019). This article discusses the differences between the Yang and Murray proposals
Pro —  General — Video

Pro — General — Books
Raising the Floor (2016).  Raising the Floor confronts America’s biggest economic challenge-the fundamental restructuring of the economy and the emerging disruptive technology that threaten secure jobs and income. Andy Stern convincingly shows why it is time to consider a universal basic income as the nation’s twenty-first-century solution to increasing inequality.
In 2010, troubled by watching families chase the now-elusive American Dream, Andy Stern began a five-year journey to investigate how technology will impact jobs and the future of work. Stern, formerly the head of the nation’s most influential and fastest-growing union, the Service Employees International Union, investigated these issues with a wide range of CEOs, futurists, economists, workers, entrepreneurs, and investment bankers who are shaping the future.

The sobering assessment that emerged from his research-across the political spectrum, from libertarians at the CATO Institute to the leaders of the progressive left-is that this time is different: there will be meager benefits that come with full-time work and fewer good jobs overall. Facing such a challenging moment, Stern’s solution is fittingly bold: to establish a universal basic income by eliminating many current government programs and adding new resources. At once vivid, provocative, and pragmatic, Raising the Floor will spark a national conversation about creating the new American Dream.
Fair Shot: Rethinking Inequality  and How We Earn (2018).  Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes makes the case that one percenters like him should pay their fortune forward in a radically simple way: a guaranteed income for working people. The first half of Chris Hughes’ life played like a movie reel right out of the “American Dream.” He grew up in a small town in North Carolina. His parents were people of modest means, but he was accepted into an elite boarding school and then Harvard, both on scholarship. There, he met Mark Zuckerberg and Dustin Moskovitz and became one of the co-founders of Facebook. In telling his story, Hughes demonstrates the powerful role fortune and luck play in today’s economy. Through the rocket ship rise of Facebook, Hughes came to understand how a select few can become ultra-wealthy nearly overnight. He believes the same forces that made Facebook possible have made it harder for everyone else in America to make ends meet. To help people who are struggling, Hughes proposes a simple, bold solution: a guaranteed income for working people, including unpaid caregivers and students, paid for by the one percent. The way Hughes sees it, a guaranteed income is the most powerful tool we have to combat poverty and stabilize America’s middle class. Money―cold hard cash with no strings attached―gives people freedom, dignity, and the ability to climb the economic ladder. A guaranteed income for working people is the big idea that’s missing in the national conversation. This book, grounded in Hughes’ personal experience, will start a frank conversation about how we earn in modern America, how we can combat income inequality, and ultimately, how we can give everyone a fair shot.
Mason, P. (2016) Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future. This book argues a UBI will be part of a post-work world that is rather utopian.
Pro — General — Articles
Pitts legacy includes a call for UBI (2020).  This article argues MLK support a basic income and that automation will wipe out trillions in wages.

Pro — Poverty
13 million people are disconnected from the social safety net, most of them are white (2019). 
Can a family survive on minimum wage? (2019)
Yang’s UBI is stealth welfare reform (2019). This article argues that the poor will not benefit from Yang’s proposal and will actually bear the brunt of the costs.
Promise of a UBI and Its Limitations (2018). This article explains the ways UBI will reduce poverty.
Pro — Inequality
Income inequality continues to grow in the US (2019). The title is self-explanatory
Inequality and the basic income guarantee (2019). This article argues that a UBI is more effective at solving poverty than expanding the Negative Income Tax (NIT). 
Replace Welfare
The progressive case for replacing the welfare state with a basic income (2018). This article argues the status quo welfare system doesn’t help the poor.
.  Atlas Nods: The Libertarian Case for a UBI (2017). This Article seeks to answer that question. We first show that a basic safety net is not only consistent with, but likely required by, several (though not all) strands of libertarian thought. We then explain why libertarians committed to limited redistribution and limited government might support a system of unconditional cash transfers paid periodically. Delivering benefits in cash, rather than in-kind, furthers autonomy by recognizing that all citizens—even poor ones—are the best judges of their needs. Decoupling such transfers from a work requirement acknowledges that the state lacks the ability to distinguish between work-capable and work-incapable individuals. Providing payments periodically, rather than through a once-ina-lifetime lump-sum grant, ensures that all individuals can receive a minimum level of support over lifespans of variable lengths, while also allowing individuals to adjust payment flows through financial market transactions. 
UBI will change welfare (2019). This article argues that UBI should replace welfare, contending it removes the disencentives to work.
The federal poverty line is too low (2016). This article argues that the federal poverty line is too low. It’s relevant because the line impacts determinations of eligibility for programs.
Means testing is not progressive (2019). This article makes a general case that programs should not be means tested.
Pro — Unemployment Caused by Automation
30 million workers would lose their jobs because ofAI (2019) This article says millions of workers will lose jobs due to automation.
What the future of work will mean for jobs and unemployment (2019)
Why Elon Musk thinks a UBI is inevitable (2017).  This article argues that UBI will increase unemployment by 47%

Pro — UBI Solves Unemployment
Three reasons for a UBI (2017). This article is mostly talking about developing countries but it argues that a UBI can sustain social cohesion and help transition to a world of unemployment caused by automation.
UBI is the solution to a worsening problem (2019). This is an article by Yang arguing that UBI solves for the social instability created by general unemployment.Why a UBI is an answer to job automation (2017)
UBI: An idea whose time has come (2019)

UBI, Automation, and the Future of Jobs (2019)
Robots are stealing our jobs (2019)
Pro — Rural
Can UBI solve Appalachia’s post-coal poverty (2019)
Pro — Freedom
Why did Hayek support a UBI (2019)
Pro — Political engagement
Radical pluralism — a liberal defense of UBI (2019)
Pro — Racism
How a UBI can cure racial inequality (2019)
Basic Income as a Reparation (2019)
Pro — Economy
A basic income for all (2019)
This is why experts think all people should have a UBI (2019)
UBI could grow the economy by an extra 12.5 percent (2017)
Study: UBI would grow the economy (2017)
UBI would do wonders for the US economy (2017)
Modeling the macreconomic effects of a UBI (2019) How would a massive federal spending program like a universal basic income (UBI) affect the macroeconomy? We use the Levy Institute macroeconometric model to estimate the impact of three versions of such an unconditional cash assistance program over an eight-year time horizon. Overall, we find that the economy can not only withstand large increases in federal spending, but could also grow thanks to the stimulative effects of cash transfers on the economy.
Pro — Feminism
The Feminist Case for UBI (2019)
Why UB is a Women’s Issue (2019
Could basic income play a role in the fight against unfree labor (2017)
The feminist case for UBI (2017)

UBI: A feminist perspective on UBI (2017)
Feminist Theory, Gender Inequity, Basic Income (2019)
We are all housewives: UBI as wages for housework (2019)
Feminist political theory and the argument for an unconditonal basic income (2017)
Pro — Mental Health
UBI and mental health (2019)
Pro — Disabilities
Universal Basic Income will help people with disabilities escape poverty (2019)
Pro  — Bargaining Power
The real power of a UBI is that it raises the reservation wag e (2018)
Pro — Public Sphere
Republicanism and a Rearticulation of the Public Sphere (2019)
Pro — Climate Change
Here’s how a UBI could mitigate the climate emergency (2019)
Alive in the sunshine (2014)
Pro — Crime
UBI as a Policy Lever: Can UBI reduce crime? (2019)
Pro — Experiments
Universal basic income didn’t fail in Finland (2018)
Pro — Laziness Answers/People Will Quit Work

A UBI wouldn’t make people lazy,i t would change the nature of work (2019)
UBI wouldn’t mean everyone quits working (2019)
The pro work case for a UBI (2017). This article claims that UBI motivates work, it doesn’t discourage it. 
Pro — General Answers to Stuff
9 arguments against a UBI debunked (2018). The title is self-explanatory.
Unreasonable reasons for opposing a UBI (2018). This article answers 5 common objections to UBI.
Pro — Cost Answers
Let the robots take our jobs and pay for a UBI (2018). This article argues that we could fund a UBI with a tax on automation
Poverty costs the US more than a UBI would (2019)
The two most popular critiques of a UBI are wrong (2018)

UBI costs less than you think (2019)
Here’s how to fund a UBI program in the US (2019)
Why we should support the idea of a UBI in the US (2018)
How much does a UBI cost  (2017)
Interview with Guy Standing (2017)
How to cut the poverty rate in half (2017)
Pro — Inflation Answers
Tax robots and a UBI (2018). This article argues that robots will trigger massive unemployment and a deflationary spiral. It also argues that a UBI is needed.
Pro — Libertarianism Answers
The pragmatic libertarian case for a UBI (2018)
Why should a libertarian take UBI seriously? (2018)
Pro — Capital Flight Answers
UBI won’t cause capital flight    (2017)
Pro — Immigration Answers
Reconciling UBI with immigration concerns (2018)
Pro — Inflation Answers
A New Mexico study undercuts one of the greatest myths of UBI (2017)
Will basic income causes massive inflation? No (2017)
Wouldn’t unconditional basic income cause massive inflation? (2017)
Cash transfers and & basic income don’t cause inflation (2017)
UBI: Something we can all agree on    (2017)
Will basic income cause inflation? (2017)
Pro Answers to Alternatives — 
Pro — Negative Income Tax Answers
Inequality and the basic income guarantee (2019). This article argues that a UBI is more effective at solving poverty than expanding the Negative Income Tax (NIT). 
The UBI and an NIT (2017)
Pro — EITC answers
Harvard economist agrees to replace EITC with UBI (2018)
Why a universal basic income is better than wage subsidies (2017)
Pro — Higher Minimum Wage Answers
UBI vs. Living Wage (2017
Pro — Job Guarantee Answers
Why we need a UBI (2017)
The basic income and job guarantee are complentary (2016)
Pro — Universal Services Answers
Why Universal Services is no alternative to a UBI (2018)
Pro — Participation Income Answers
What about a participation income? (2017)
The public administrative case against UBI (2017)
Con — General
UBII: Is it a good idea?  (2019). This article discusses the major UBI proposals, their advocates, and the Pros and Cons. It does ultimately conclude that a UBI that works is too expensive and that it is only feasible in a world where there is already a change in societal attitudes that support the poor.
The reality of a UBI (2019)
Three arguments against a UBI (2019)
UBI: New Study Finds it Cannot Live Up to Its Promise (2019)
Collosal problem with UBI (2019)

UBI: A Dream Come True for Despots (2019)
America’s Real Freedom Dividend: Hard Work and Pro Business Policies (2019

UBI fredom plan would harm other low income Americans (2019)
UBI is a Pandora’s box (2019)
UBI won’t be a panacea for ecoomies(2019)
Universal basic income: A Thorougly wrongheaded idea (2019)
UBI harms recipients and increases dependence on the government (2018)
UBI: New Study Finds it Cannot Live Up to Its Promise (2019)
UBI is not the solution we think it is (2019)
UBI is a bad idea (2019)
UBI: A Thorougly wrongheaded idea (2018)

UBI: Simplicity, But at What Cost (2014)
A UBI is a poor tool to fight poverty (2015)
Implementing a UBI would be a disaster (2019)
UBI has been tried before and it didn’t work (2019)
UBI: A Thoroughly wrongheaded idea (2019)
UBI is little more than smoke and mirrors (2019)
An old idea, as wrong as ever: Universal basic income  (2019)
Why universal basic income wiil ruin lives (2019)
A universal basic income is antiwork (2016)
A universal basic income is little more than smoke and mirrors (2019)
Universal basic income is a universally bad idea (2019)
UBI as a Policy Response to Current Challenges (2019)  Abstract: We briefly review the main motivations behind recent calls for a Universal Basic Income (UBI) in the United States and the main features of some current UBI proposals. We then argue that a UBI would be extremely expensive and yet do very little to reduce inequality or advance opportunity and social mobility. We argue that instead of a UBI, the federal government should pursue a pro-work strategy of income support, paying wage subsidies to low-wage workers along with targeted transfer benefits consisting of both cash and near-cash types of support paid to the most needy individuals and households.
Con — Welfare Good
UBI undermines the safety net 
Why a UBI might not be the answer (2018)
Why should governments provide cash handouts before providing free public services to all? (2018)

UBI doesn’t work, let’s boost the public realm instead (2018)
UBI might hurt poor people more than it would help (2018)
The relative costs of a UBI and a basic income tax (2018)

A closer look at a UBI (2019)
What happens if you replace every social program with a UBI? (2017)
Con – Work
A UBI would undermine work (2017)
Con — Immigration

How a UBI would increase global poverty (2017)
Con — Cost
UBI would cost taxpayers 3.8 trillion (2019)
Andrew Yang’s Mat Doesn’t Add Up (2019)
Does Yang’s Freedom Proposal Add Up? (2019)
Con — Poverty
UBI won’t tackle poverty or inequality (2017)
Could UBI actually make poverty worse? (2019)
UBI may sound attractive, but it would likely increase poverty (2019)
A UBI might hurt the poor more than it helps (2019)
Con — Inequality
Could a universal basic income actually make inequality worse? (2019)
Con — Economy Answers
The Top 3 Arguments Against a UBI (2017)
Con – Roosevelt Study Answers
Options for a UBI: Dynamic Modeling= (2018)
Con — Feminism Answers
Feminism and the UBI (2017)
Basic Incomes Biggest Losers (2017)
Con — VAT Bad
Would a 10% VAT pay for a UBI?
Con — Employee Bargaining Power Answers
How Not to Argue for a UBI (2018)
Con – Automation Answers
Basic Income after asutomation: That’s Not How Capittalism Works (2017)
Con — Mental Health
UBI in the US would be bad for your mental health (2019)
Con — Cost

UBI would cost $3.8 trillion per year (2019)
The math is clear: UBI is a terrible idea (2019)
Con — Cost — Tradeoff with Health Care
The Fiscal and Economic Impact 
5 reasons why a UBI is a bad concept  (2019)
How to one up a UBI (2017)
Con — Capitalism Bad
UBI is just a band aid 
UBI is a neoliberal plot to ake you poorer (2017)
Con — Answers to: Entitlements Bad
What you need to know about means tested entitlements (2019)
What happens if you replace every social program with a UBI (2017)
Con — Universal Service Alternative
Universal services is more effective than a UBI (2019)
Con — Tyranny
Why Libertarians should oppose a UBI (2017)
4 reasons to fear a UBI (2017)
Can Libertarians advocate for a UBI? (2017)
Con — Reparations Answers
Is Basic Income Permissible? (2017)
Con — Pragmatic Libertarianism Answers
The pragmatic libertarian case for a UBI doesn’t add up (2017)
UBI stil fails to pass Libertarian scrutiny (2017)
Against the libertarian case for a basic income (2013)
Con — Basic Incoe Guarantee Answers
The libertarian case for Basic Income(2013). “A Basic Income Guarantee would be much better than the current welfare state.”
Pros and Cons of the EITC 
UBI is just a negative income tax without a leaky bucket (2019)
Why a UBI is a poor substitute for a guaranteed jobExpanding basic services would be more effetive than a UBI (2019)
Right wing case for a basic income (2017). This article argues for a negative income tax.
Finland gave people $640/month. He’s what happened (2019)
Is Finland’s UBI trial too good to be true? (2019)