Resolved: The United States should require universal background checks for all gun sales and transfer of ownership (Bibliography)

Highlights — Very Useful
Gun Violence in America, Explained in 17 Maps and Charts. This October article details the problem of gun violence in American, claims that gun control legislation contributes reductions to violence, and has useful links to other research material.
The research is clear: Gun control saves lives. This article answers a popular Washington Post article that claims that gun control is ineffective.
Murphy to introduce background check legislation. This article does not have useful evidence in it, but it highlights that an upcoming push for legislation on background checks that debaters should be aware of for research purposes.
Background checks for firearms and loans: Law, history, and policy  This paper argues that background checks for firearms are constitutional and could reduce deaths as long as they are limited to the public and private sale weapons are are not done for the purpose of loaning and returning weapons. The articles says they should also not have to be done at a store.
The relationship between universal background check laws and the rate of firearm violence at the state level This paper argues that UBCs reduces violent crime in areas with high poverty rates by 10%. It concludes there is no statistically significant reduction in areas without high poverty rates.
Universal background checking: New York’s Safe Act . This article discusses New York’s SAFE Act, which includes background checks and other gun restrictions. The articles doesn’t identify any disadvantages to background checks, but it does argue they are useless/don’t really help.
Why there are no universal background checks for gun buyers in the US.  This brief article argues that UBC aren’t supported because of political opposition from the NRA.
Universal background check: What does it mean?  This article generally explains what UBCs are and that they have resulted in the denials of gun purchases to 1.9 million people.
Research suggests universal background checks work, but they’re not everything. This article discusses the research that shows background checks work as well as the research that shows it fails.
Congress has been silent on guns, but states haven’t .  This article doesn’t have much (if any) useful evidence, but does discuss the current (at least pre Las Vegas shooting), gun control efforts at the state level, the federal level, and in the courts.
How Gun Control Works in America, Compared to 4 other rich countries. This is a good  overview of gun control that compares how it works in the US to other wealthy countries. It also discusses universal background checks in many parts of the article.
10 Frequently Asked Questions. This is a basic FAQ from the BATF that describes current gun laws related to gun transfers.
In search of the golden mean in the gun debate
Universal background check: What does it mean? 
Making records of gun sales 
Firearm ownership laws and preschool kids
Does gun control reduce violent crime 
Research suggests background checks are effective, but they are not everything.
Who owns guns in America? Mostly white men 
Senate appears ready to move on guns 
We are closer to a universal background system than we thought 
State support for background checks 
Universal background checks.  Strong advocacy of the need for universal background checks. If you read one Pro article, you should read this one.
Mass shootings are an American problem. There’s an American solution.  This article argues that mass gun violence is uniquely an American problem and that background checks can reduce gun violence.  You should also read this law review article by the author —  Second generation of Second Amendment law and policy   This article, the author argues that opposition to even reasonable gun control legislation, such as universal background checks, is driven by ridiculous anti-government posture that is steeped in racism.
Evidence for optimism The are actually a number of articles and pieces of testimony at this link that argue that background checks and reduce general violence, domestic violence, and black market weapons sales.
Obama wants universal background checks. Is that feasible?  This article references a 1990 study from the University of Chicago and argues that background checks will result in a net reduction in gun violence.
Improved gun background checks would impeded some mass shootings This is an interview with a Stanford professor who claims that strengthening background checks would reduce some mass shootings.
Why we need universal background checks. This short article makes the case for closing the private sales loophole in federal background checks legislation. It points out that S. 2934/H.R. 3411 would require that background checks be conducted on all private sales of firearms.
Where universal background checks work This article argues that while background checks would not have prevented well-known mass shootings that they would reduce homicide. The article references a study about background checks in Missouri.
Universal background checks could substantially cut gun deaths  This very brief article references a 2016 study in The Lancet that argues background checks will reduce gun violence.
Background checks for all gun sales  This is a brief release from the Center for American progress that claims that background checks in particular states reduce gun violence.
Why universal background checks can’t lead to a federal gun registry This article answers the argument that universal background checks will lead to a national gun registry.
Want to buy a gun without a background check? Arms list can help. This article contends that a lack of UBCs for online sales has led to gun violence.
9 Things to Know About Gun Violence in Washington State. This article contends that a lack of UBCs enables criminals to get guns.
The Gun Debate 1 Year After Newton. This article answers common objections made against universal background checks.
Preventing gun violence in our nation. This article discusses different measures for strengthening the background check system.
Why America doesn’t have universal background checks for gun buyers . This article argues that a UBC will be comprehensive, preventing people from bringing guns into other states.
Private gun show loophole creates invisible firearms market. This news article explains the problem with lack of UBCs well.
Repeal of Missouri’s background check law shows an increase in states’ murders.  The title is pretty self-explanatory.
Why Expanding Background Checks Would, in Fact, Reduce Gun Crime. This article answers the common reasons that are given as to why background checks won’t work.
How to stop handgun violence without threatening the Second Amendment. This makes the argument that background checks reduce gun violence.
Would universal background checks make a difference?  This memo explains why a universal background check law is an essential and effective policy change, explains why it is not inconvenient for gun owners, and rates the quality of the National Instant Check System (NICS).
Some gun laws tied to lower suicide rates. This article argues UBCs reduce suicides.
2.1 million gun sales have been stopped. This short article makes the simple argument that background checks have prevented 2.1 million gun sales.
Study finds that universal background checks reduce gun violence 
This new study proves background checks reduce crime 
NRA misfires on gun control registry 
Why universal background checks have gun owner support 
BU study measures impact of gun control laws 
Challenge to Mental Health Record Sharing and Recent Congressional Activity 
Lower suicide rates associated with background checks 
Background check system kept 72 criminals from buying a gun in Colorado 
Obama asking the team that fixed to fix the background system 
Improving background check system 
NRA wants an active mental illness database 
Pro — Terrorism
Islamic State steers followers to US gun shows for “easy access” to weapons.  The article contends that terrorists are trained to take advantage of the gun show and private sales loopholes to acquire weapons.
Background checks can help prevent terrorism. The title is self-explanatory.
Four reasons universal background checks for gun buyers are bad ideas  This brief article identifies four reasons that universal background checks will not work.
Why universal background checks won’t work This article explains that UBCs will fail because
This is what is wrong about universal background checks  This article by a strong gun rights advocate contents that background checks will will lead to gun registries and gun confiscation.
Why Mentally Ill people are allowed to buy guns – or keep the ones they have. This argues background checks own’t prevent mentally ill people from getting access to guns.
Background checks open the door to a national gun registry. Argues that a UBC system will result in a national gun registry that will undermine gun rights.
Loopholes in good laws allow criminals to skirt background checks .  Argues background check loopholes enable buyers to skirt background checks.
Badly flawed system fails to contain firearm sales This long article details the many limitations of a background check system.
How terrorism suspects buy guns. This article contends that UBCs won’t prevent terrorists from buying weapons.
6 Problems with mandatory back checks.
How background checks fail 
The epic failure of universal background checks 
Universal background checks unenforceable
Universal background checks do little to stop mass shootings 
The argument against universal background checks
The costs and consequences of gun control 
Lack of data makes it hard for background check systems to work 
Think background checks reduce gun violence? Thank again 
Would universal background checks make a difference 
Preventing gun violence would make a difference 
There is no federal law against gun trafficking 
A strategy to reduce gun trafficking 
The case against background checks
Gun violence 
Race, surveillance, and empire
Perfect storm imperils background checks 
Congress pledges more than $1 billion to fix federal background check system
Lack of data makes it hard to make federal background check system work 
Gun restrictions have always bred violence 
Straw buyers of guns break the law
Straw purchasers policy summary 
Traffickers and straw purchasers 
Interstate straw purchasers
FBI allowed 300 gun sales before completing background check 
Call Volume Shuts-Down NRA Background check system 
Trump’s new background check system will inherit a shortage 
America’s gun buying binge is overwhelming the FBI
Con — NRA Backlash
Why the NRA hates background checks 
Inside the power of the NRA 
Con — Racism
Gun Control’s Racist Reality: The liberal argument against giving policy more power. This article contends that gun control will be disproportionately enforced against minorities and used to enhance sentencing of minority criminals, contributing to long-term disproportionate incarceration.
Gun control advocates cannot win without fighting their own racism. This argues that the priority for enforcement of gun control laws will be directed against minorities.
The racist roots of gun control. This paper argues that gun control is rooted in racism. It provides a lot of historical context that you may wish to be familiar with when making arguments in a debate.
Gun control will not save America from racism. This article reviews the history of gun control and argues that it has been directed against minorities.
Racist pols go straight back to disarming blacks. This article contends that racist gun laws are targeted at disarming blacks.
The racist history of gun control. This article provides a detailed history of racist laws targeted at minorities.
As gun acquisition soars, gun violence plummets 
Would background checks cause  mass shootings? 
Lessons from Missouri — The Cost of Eliminate Background Checks 
Pro — General Gun Control
More madness. More cowardice. This article generally supports the need for gun control.
Guns aren’t a bullwark agains tyranny. The rule of law is. This article argues that guns are 4X as likely to be used in a crime than in self-defense and that guns will not stop us from a tyrannical government.
A huge international study on gun control proves it actually works. This article review a 2016 meta study that demonstrates claims that gun control likely works.
Homicide. This literature review from the Harvard School of Public Health argues that greater gun availability increases the risks of death by homicide.
Reducing gun violence in America This full book argues that gun control measures will reduce gun violence.
How Australia and Britain tackled gun violence. This articles argues that very strong gun control measures in Australia and Britain reduced gun violence.
Stronger gun laws, less violence. This generally makes the case for the argument that strengthening gun laws and inapropriate ownership will reduce violence
12 facts that show access to guns makes intimate partner violence deadlier. This article makes the general claim that easier access to hand guns increases domestic violence.
The Relationship Between Firearm Ownership and Homicide Rates in the US.  Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%.
More guns, more crime.  This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual gun ownership rates at both the state and the county level during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively related to changes in the homicide rate, with this relationship driven entirely by the impact of gun ownership on murders in which a gun is used. The effect of gun ownership on all other crime categories is much less marked.
Do we have a gang problem or a gun problem?  This article answers the argument that gangs and drugs, not guns, drive the homicide rate.
How gun control makes illegal guns more expensive 
Amid inaction on straw purchasers, states take matters into their own hands 
Trafficking law and straw purchasers 
Cracking down on the illegal gun trade 
Pro — Answering the Racism Argument
Debunking the ‘ Gun Control is Racist’ Smear 
NRA Opposes GOP legislation that makes it harder to access guns 
Con — General Gun Contro
Australia’s gun control created a violent black market